SharePoint and Office 365: The New Beautiful Cookbook Series

Most of us are “meat and potatoes” people when it comes to the technology we use. We like what we know and we know what we like. (Yes, there are vegan “seitan and potatoes” people, vegetarian “sprouts and potatoes” people, pescatarian “cod and potatoes” people, etc. I’m not trying to leave anyone out.)

Every once in a while, though, someone hands us a new ingredient – something we’ve never seen before, something we’ve never cooked with.

Image from the Netflix show Chef’s Table S3E6 – Virgilio Martinez

That new ingredient becomes a part of our pantry, and we want to try to cook with it. We’ve probably heard how delicious it is or how it can make an ordinary dish taste amazing.

Sometimes, we get a whole new palette of ingredients. (Many of us love to watch cooking shows for just this reason: we see novel dishes and decide if we’d like to try them at home.)

Image from the Netflix show Chef’s Table S3E6 – Virgilio Martinez

We need to take a ton of time to figure out what the new ingredients are, how we can work with them, and what we can cook. If we don’t cook with the ingredients pretty often, then we lose the knowledge of how to use them, what ripeness is best.

Writing off something because it tastes bad in one context means we may miss a great use of the ingredient later – a ripe plum tastes so much better than an unripe one. Once someone has eaten an unripe plum, they may decide they hate plums.

But if we can overcome these hurdles and learn about the new ingredients, we can make some incredible dishes.

Image from the Netflix show Chef’s Table S3E6 – Virgilio Martinez

This is what I think we are going through with SharePoint and Office 365 right now. Microsoft is offering us an entirely new set of ingredients with which to make our stew.

Let me give you an example…

In my “meat and potatoes” way of looking at the world, which has been pretty consistent for the last ten years or so, even though SharePoint and my approaches have evolved, I might use this set of ingredients:

  • A Single Page Application (SPA) written with AngularJS or KnockoutJS – or even just plain old JavaScript
  • A dollop of values passed on the query string to a…
  • Standard list form, with a little JavaScript mixed in to pre-populate some columns in the form
  • A SharePoint Designer workflow to add notifications on top (Substitute Alerts if your local market doesn’t carry SharePoint Designer)

But there are new ingredients now. Instead we could whip something up with these:

  • A SharePoint Framework Web Part (still maybe written with AngularJS or KnockoutJS)
  • Creating list items using REST based on the values in our SPFx Web Part
  • Microsoft Flow to add in the notifications and any process
  • Stir in a pinch of PowerApps – until they are ready

That’s quite a shift. We’re being asked to think about cooking in a very different way. We’ve been through stages of evolution before – new cooking techniques like sous vide (Sandbox Solutions), gelification (Add-In Model, nee App Model), etc. – but this time it’s really different. We’re not even sure if we’re supposed to like everything we taste. Is it just the next wave of kale frenzy or is it an ingredient that will last?

At this point, Microsoft is asking us to dream big, and reach for the previously unimaginable. I think we need to try to do it.

Image from the Netflix show Chef’s Table S3E6 – Virgilio Martinez

Some of us will be able to cook up truly amazing solutions on the “modern” platform. Don’t be afraid to give it a taste.

Image from the Netflix show Chef’s Table S3E6 – Virgilio Martinez

In case you didn’t figure it out, this post was inspired by the Netflix show Chef’s Table S3E6, which profiles the Peruvian chef Virgilio Martinez. It’s an outstanding series, and this particular episode was stellar.

Also see any volume in the Beautiful Cookbook series.


Looping Through Content in a SharePoint 2013 Site Workflow – Part 4 – Get Authorization Info

This entry is part 4 of 4 in the series Looping Through Content in a SharePoint 2013 Site Workflow

In this installment, we’ll focus on the Get Authorization info step. We need to do this step first so that we’re set up to write data later in the workflow.

Get Authorization Info

Remember that we were actually trying to create a workflow? If you’ve gotten this far, I’ll forgive you if you’ve already forgotten what the point of the exercise is! But planning is important.

If you got ahead of yourself by creating the workflow first (like I did), you’ll need to shut down SharePoint Designer and reopen it so that it will notice that you’ve enabled all of the stuff above.

Now that we have the heavy cabling in place, we need to build the workflow so that it has the permissions it needs. For this, we need to make the REST calls into other sites/subsites in an App Step. (It’s App Step in SharePoint Designer, and since SharePoint Designer is at a dead end, it may always be, never becoming an Add-In Step.)

App Step

What we will be doing is wrapping any REST calls that reach into other Webs (sites) in an App Step. Once you’ve done this, you’ll get this prompt when you publish the workflow. I’d call this the “Are you really, really, really sure?” prompt. You’ll see this every time you publish the workflow from now on – pretty much (it seems sort of sporadic).

App Step Warning

REST Considerations

There’s a real chicken and egg issue with using REST calls in SharePoint Designer workflows. If you haven’t made REST calls before – outside SPD workflows – the REST calls themselves will be like black magic to you. Even if you have done REST calls before, the way it works in SPD workflows is pretty clunky. So what should you learn about?

Well, you can follow a cookbook approach like in this series of posts as well as the references I provide, or you can go whole hog and learn how it really works. It’s really up to you. If you think you’ll want to make REST calls in other contexts, learning how to do it in the context of an SPD workflow is probably a bad way to go about it. If you learn about it in this context, it may make less sense outside SPD workflows. Your call.

Set Up the App Step

When you first create your Site Workflow, you’ll have a Stage named Stage 1. As with most Microsoft tools, SharePoint Designer gives your Stage an arbitrary name; give it one that makes sense to you based on what it actually does. Mine is called Get Auth.

Set up workflow skeleton

As shown on the ribbon above, add an App Step to your workflow.

Set Up for Authorization in the Workflow

When you make only GET REST calls in a workflow (basically translating to read-only), you won’t need this step, but I set it up because I know I will be doing POSTs (making changes to items) down the road. The only goal of this step is to get the form digest value we’ll need to make those updates later.

The actual REST call looks something like this, which is pretty simple:

    url: _spPageContextInfo.siteServerRelativeUrl +
    method: "POST",
    contentType: "application/json;odata=verbose",
    headers: {
        "Accept": "application/json;odata=verbose"

It’s a POST because it has to be, even though we’re simply requesting data. It’s a little simpler when we’re issuing the request like we are above. I can paste this code into a browser console (assuming jQuery is already loaded) and I get back a result that looks something like this:

    "d": {
        "GetContextWebInformation": {
            "__metadata": { "type": "SP.ContextWebInformation" },
            "FormDigestTimeoutSeconds": 1800,
            "FormDigestValue": "0x4FCED17AFEC66558CE8F780C0B30C0C289A2D58AF426746750288C3705FDFE822D2E0DA7E386E0E9A6E9F66FFC1DE45A7013EECC946AF56A8F75756EDE319C62,12 Apr 2016 17:19:33 -0000",
            "LibraryVersion": "16.0.5131.1207",
            "SiteFullUrl": "",
            "SupportedSchemaVersions": {
                "__metadata": { "type": "Collection(Edm.String)" },
                "results": ["", ""]
            "WebFullUrl": ""

The only thing we really care about for this workflow is the value for FormDigestValue. That’s sort of like the magic key that we can use when we want to make updates in the workflow later.

To do this in the workflow, it takes a bit more setup. I’m hoping that seeing what the REST call looks like above will help make this part of the setup make a little more sense.

Get Auth App Step

Build the Dictionary

Every REST call you make in your workflow will need a dictionary (think of it as a JSON object) which contains some information about what form the request takes and how you’d like the information back.

To build a dictionary, we use the Build Dictionary action. A dictionary in a SharePoint Designer workflow is just a set of name/value pairs wrapped up in a package, sort of like the headers values in the REST call above.

In this case, you should add three name/value pairs to your dictionary:

Accept: application/json;odata=verbose
Content-Type: application/json;odata=verbose
Content-length: 255 

Create Dictionary
Give your dictionary a name; here I’ve named mine requestHeaders.

Set up the Web Service (REST) Call

Next, we use the Call HTTP web service action to set up the actual call to the SharePoint server.

The web service URL should be the path to the site where you want to make the call, followed by /_api/contextinfo. (We’re asking the server to send us some information about the current context; the form digest is a part of that context.)

The HTTP method has to be HTTP POST, as I mentioned above.

Call HTTP web service

This action is the one that actually makes the call to the server.

Parse the Results

Next we need to process the data we get back from the server. We’ve seen above what it looks like, and we have to use the tools available in Sharepoint Designer to parse it out.

The data that comes back from the call is also considered a dictionary, so we use the Get an Item from a Dictionary action.

Get dictionary value

We need to specify three things: the value we’d like to retrieve in XPath notation, the dictionary we’d like to retrieve it from, and where we’d like to store the result.

First, set the “item by name or path” to d/GetContextWebInformation/FormDigestValue. If you look at the data above, you’ll see that this is the path to the value we want.

String builder

Next, set the dictionary name to the name you used in the first step; mine is requestHeaders.

Finally, choose a variable to receive the value. I’m using digestValue. We’ll be able to use this value later in the workflow because we’ve saved it into a variable.

Log the Results

The last above is where I do a little logging to make sure that this step worked. Using the Log to History List action, I emit the responseCode from the request and the value of digestValue variable. The responseCode ought to be “OK” if all went well, and I should see the long string value for the digestValue.

Log results

Set Up the Transition

At the bottom of the stage we’ve been building, there’s a transition option, which is basically “What next?”. Set it to End of Workflow for now.

Publish and Test

This is a good point to save your workflow and test it. No, it doesn’t do anything of real value yet, but building it up step-by-step is the right way to go. If you see good results in the Workflow History Log, then you can feel comfortable moving on to the next step in the workflow.

You should see something like this:

Logging data

In the next installment in the series, I’ll show you how to set up the next step: Get Webs.



Looping Through Content in a SharePoint 2013 Site Workflow – Part 3 – High Level View of the Workflow

This entry is part 3 of 4 in the series Looping Through Content in a SharePoint 2013 Site Workflow

As I discussed in the first part of the series, my goal is to find all the sales opportunities in a Site Collection and process them based on their characteristics. To do this I’ve created a Site Workflow – SharePoint 2013 flavor – that makes a set of REST calls to traverse the Site Collection to get the items we want to process.

Site Hierarchy
I’m working in a Site Collection with a fairly simple hierarchy, most of which I inherited. There’s a root site, of course, then a number of subsites – one per business partner – and one subsite for application management. The workflow will run in the management site (only Site Owners are allowed in there) and reach out across the rest of the sites in the Site Collection.

Looking at the details of a workflow like this right off the bat is probably a little too detailed, so let’s look at a conceptual picture. If you’ve used SPServices or REST calls to traverse sites before, this may not seem too complicated for you. If not, it may look like a nice picture (maybe – the colors are a little much!), but otherwise not make a lot of sense.

Conceptual overview of the workflowWorkflow Steps

The orange boxes represent App Steps. App Steps are only available to us if we give the workflow app permissions, as we did in the previous article. We need the App Steps so that we can make REST calls into sites other than the one where the workflow is running. When I tried to run my workflow without setting up the app permissions, each of the REST calls (now contained in App Steps) failed due to an authorization issue.

Stage: Get Authorization info

The first thing we’re doing is getting a digest token, which amounts to a way to authenticate the workflow when it does writes back to any of the lists. When we read information in the workflow, we don’t need this authentication info, but we do if we want to write anything. I’ve included the step in my workflow because I’m pretty sure I’ll want to be able to update some of the sales opportunities based on their status.

Stage: Get Webs

The next stage is where we make a REST call to retrieve the list of subsites (also known as Webs) which sit directly below the root site of the Site Collection. To do this, I need to make a call to the Webs REST endpoint. This is why we needed to set the workflow up with app permissions at the Site Collection level.

Stage: Process Webs

Once we have the list of subsites we can loop through them to process them.

Loop: Process Web

This loop contains the logic I use to process anything I need within each subsite. In the first few actions in this loop, I parse out the details about each subsite (title, relative URL, etc.) into variables.

Step: Process Opportunities

Using the variables I set up in the beginning of the Process Web loop, I make a REST call into the subsite to see if the Opportunities list is there and has sales opportunities in it which meet our criteria. (For example, we might filter out the opportunities which are already sold.)

Loop: Process Opportunity

If I do get a list of opportunities back from the call above, I process each of the individual opportunities in the Process Opportunity loop. This loop is where the “meat” of the workflow lives. All of the other steps simply exist to get us here so that we can take actions on each of the opportunities that meet whatever criteria we have defined. As the business process gels more (we’re designing it as we build the workflow), we may end up with multiple loops like this. For instance, we could have one loop which sends out emails about opportunities that are late; another loop to alert the sales team about big opportunities of note; and another loop that bumps up the commission percentage based on the quality of the opportunity, etc.

Building and Debugging

Thinking through how your workflow should work at a high level like this is sometimes useful. I’m more of an iterator, though. I tend to build one part of things and test it, then bolt on some more logic and test it, etc.

One thing I’m a huge fan of is emitting some sort of debugging messages along the way. This probably harkens back to the good old days where that was the only debugging technique we really had.

In any case, each of the phases, steps, and loops above emits something into the workflow history list using the Log to History List action.

Log workflow messages

As I build up the workflow, having a clear log of what’s happening in the workflow history list is a great debugging tool. The screenshot below shows the kind of thing I tend to do.

Workflow log messages

In this case, I can see that I found 15 subsites. Then when I processed the first subsite, I found 3 opportunities to work with. For each opportunity, I can see the customer name (this is test data, of course!), and so on.

The workflow will get more and more complex, but by emitting these messages, I have a fairly decent way to see what’s going on. Debugging these workflows is not a lot of fun – it’s slow going and sometimes hard to see what’s gone wrong – but at least I can look at my log and see where things might have failed.

In the next few articles, we’ll look at each of the phases, steps, and loops I’ve outlined above to see what’s going on in more detail.

Looping Through Content in a SharePoint 2013 Site Workflow – Part 2 – Setting Up App Permissions

This entry is part 2 of 4 in the series Looping Through Content in a SharePoint 2013 Site Workflow

Site Workflows are great, but if you want them to reach across into other sites you’ll probably have permission issues. By giving these workflows App Permissions, you’ll be able to let your workflow access content across your Site Collection.


In part one of this series I described the basic task we’re trying to solve. We want to create a SharePoint 2013 site workflow that can iterate through subsites and then take some actions on each item that meets some criteria. At the end of that article, I said that the first step is that we’ll set up the workflow with proper permissions so it can traverse content across the Site Collection. So now you’re thinking, “Great. The problem is defined. Let’s pop over to SharePoint Designer and create a workflow.” Unfortunately, that isn’t the right thing to do. I know because I tried that, and I’m writing this series to pass on the lessons learned.

Before we can even think about writing the workflow, we should set up the authorization side of things. It wasn’t enough to get the digest token from the server for the REST calls. (More on this later.) When I tried to make the REST calls I needed from one subsite into the root of the Site Collection or another subsite, I got authorization errors.

Instead, there’s more heavy-duty permissions set up required to make the REST calls into other Webs (sites to normal people). We need to give our workflow App Permission, which isn’t obvious as you’re working on the workflow in SharePoint Designer (SPD), nor is it possible to do so in SPD.

Luckily I have good friends in the community. Matt Bramer (@ionline247) was the first person who replied to one of my tweets, and he gave me some good tips. Through him I found that Fabian Williams (@fabianwilliams) had written several blog posts about the trials and tribulations he went through so that I  wouldn’t have to. (I added links to Fabian’s blogs at the end of this article.) But setting up workflow App Permission is still confusing, in my opinion.

You’ll go through two two main steps to set these permissions. I found the steps generally documented in the MSDN article, Create a workflow with elevated permissions by using the SharePoint 2013 Workflow platform, but here’s my version.

Step 1 – Allow the workflow to use app permissions

Go to Site Settings in the site where you want the workflow to run and turn on the Workflows can use app permissions feature. You can do this by going to Site Settings and in the Site Actions section, choose Manage Site Features. Toward the bottom of the list of available features, you’ll see Workflows can use app permissions. To activate it, (figure 2) simply click the Activate button and wait for the activation to complete.

Workflows can use app permissions

Figure 2: In Site Settings / Site Actions / Manage Site Features you need to Activate the feature to allow workflows to read from and write to all items in the site.

Step 2 – Grant full control permission to a workflow

This step gets pretty weird. We have to give this workflow the permissions to run as if it’s an app add-in. (Though one might say that it’s an app add-in already – everything is an app add-in, right?)

In the site where you want the workflow to run, navigate to Site Settings and then under Users and Permissions, go to Site app permissions. If things have gone according to plan, you should see Workflow as one of the two or more items listed here.

What you want to grab is the yellow text in figure 3. It follows a bar character – “|” – and precedes an “@” character. I’m not sure exactly where this GUID comes from, but it’s what you need.


Figure 3: Copy part of the Workflow App Identifier

Now you have to navigate to a hidden, super-secret page at:


In the example on MSDN, they send you off to the /sites/AppCatalog Site Collection for this. That’s only because they are showing an example interacting with a list there. You should go to the secret page in the Site Collection where you want the workflow to run. (Yes, I was down a rat hole on this for a while. Maybe I was just being stupid. It seemed like the good folks who wrote the MSDN article were telling me I needed to give permissions on the App Catalog site for this to work – but that wasn’t the case.)

The should look something like figure 4. The page doesn’t have a title like most SharePoint pages (hey, it’s super-secret), but the hover text for the info icon at the top of the page says “Grant permission to an app.”

Set the app permissions

Figure 4: You’ll paste the Workflow App Identifier into the Add Id field on the secret page.

Now as you can see in figure 5, you paste in the yellow text from above, and click the Lookup button. The next three fields will be filled in. You shouldn’t need to change anything in those fields.

Paste in the App ID

Figure 5: Paste in the App Id that you copied from the workflow in Site app permissions (figure 3).

Next, you need to paste some XML into the last field called Permission Request XML. Don’t try to get all smart about it like I did: paste in EXACTLY this XML— don’t make any changes.

You have two options here (the first option adds /web in line three) and I’ll explain the difference below the XML snippet:

  <AppPermissionRequest Scope="http://sharepoint/content/sitecollection/web" Right="FullControl" />


  <AppPermissionRequest Scope="http://sharepoint/content/sitecollection" Right="FullControl" />

In this case, I went with the latter; I want my workflow to have permissions on the entire Site Collection. The former would give my workflow permissions only in the subsites of the Site Collection; I needed permission on the root of the Site Collection because I wanted to iterate through the subwebs (subsites) from there. So with both the App Id and the XML pasted, the app identity and permission look like figure 6.


Figure 6: We’ve identified the workflow’s app’s identity and indicated where it has permissions to be used.

Click Create.

Next you’ll be asked if you trust the workflow. One would think this would be a given, but click Trust It.

 Site App Permissions

At this point, you have the permissions set up that give you the possibility of looping through the subsites off the root, even though you haven’t created an actual workflow yet. (Or, if you’re like me, you beat your head against the workflow first and then realized you had to figure this part out.)

In the next article, we’ll talk through what the workflow needs to do on a high level to be useful.

References for this step

This article was also published on IT Unity on 1/25/2016. Visit the post there to read additional comments.

Looping Through Content in a SharePoint 2013 Site Workflow – Part 1 – Introduction

This entry is part 1 of 4 in the series Looping Through Content in a SharePoint 2013 Site Workflow

Site Workflows let us run logic independent of lists and libraries. By combining them with REST calls, we can traverse a Site Collection and process multiple lists and their contents by looping though them when we want. In this article, part 1 of the series, we’ll describe the problem we are trying to solve, but the solution can apply to many SharePoint scenarios.

SharePoint 2013 Site Workflow

As with most things SharePoint, setting up a workflow to loop through items across subsites seems like it should be easier. What I was trying to do seemed like a common requirement: get some data from lists in SharePoint subsites and loop through it, taking some actions on each item that meets some criteria.

I’ll warn you that this series of articles is not for the faint of heart, the new-to-workflow initiate, or the person without a lot of permissions. My solution involves reaching into Office 365’s workflow guts a bit here.

In my current case, I’m building an opportunity management solution for a sales organization. Each sales partner – these are outside companies – will have a subsite only they can access where they will enter sales opportunities as they arise. The sales folks for the host company want to be able to manage that “basket” of opportunities as well as send out emails to the partners as the opportunities move through various stages in a process. We won’t cover all of the possible permutations here as I want to focus more on the chassis of the workflow.

I need to check a specific list in a bunch of subsites for new items and send an email about each. I don’t want to create a separate List Workflow that sits in each of the lists because it would be an administrative nightmare to change the workflow down the road (we have over a dozen subsites, and the number will grow). Instead, I want to create one central SharePoint 2013 Site Workflow that finds all the subsites, finds the list in each subsite (if it exists), and iterates through the items in the list, taking different actions based on the data in each item. We’ll set this workflow to run every x minutes (probably once an hour or once a day) by adding a wait state at the end of processing.

You could accomplish this with “code” or Powershell, but that takes it out of the hands of the Site Admin who might want to change things down the road. By using a workflow, we can give them some control over things like the text of the emails without making them learn how to code to change them. As a consultant, I want to be able to leave my client with a solution they can maintain on their own as much as possible. They can still call me for the heavy lifting, but most changes should be something they can handle themselves.

On Office 365 in SharePoint Online, this feels a LOT trickier than it may have been in the past because of the complexity (nay, swamp) of authorization we must navigate. I expect that similar authentication issues may apply on premises, too, but Office 365 is more of a moving target.

In this series of articles, I’ll show you the steps I went through and let you know where I got stuck, waylaid, and confused. I believe that only one of us should have to suffer through this stuff so that everyone else can avoid it.

We’ll go through the overall concept of how the process works, as well as:

  • Setting up the workflow with the proper permissions so it can traverse content across the Site Collection
  • Initializing the workflow based on values stored in a user-maintainable list
  • Making the REST calls to discover all of the existing subsites without having to hard-wire where they are
  • Parsing the data returned from each REST call
  • Discovering whether each subsite contains the list we are looking for
  • Processing the items in each list based on a set of criteria that can change over time
  • Sending out emails appropriate for each set of criteria

This isn’t totally new ground; there are many blog posts out there that cover bits and pieces of this, and I’ll provide the links I found helpful and give credit where credit is due. I didn’t find anything that showed me how it all worked together, though.

Thanks right off the bat to Matt Bramer (@ionline247) and Fabian Williams (@fabianwilliams) for getting me up and rolling when I first start whining about this on Twitter.

This article was also published on IT Unity on 1/19/2016. Visit the post there to read additional comments.